We were excited to have a clear day to explore Hong Kong! We took advantage of the clear weather by taking a ferry across the harbor to reach the tram that too us up to Victoria’s Peak. This is the highest point on Hong Kong Island. From here, we could see beautiful views of the city and harbor. We were exited to eat some American food at Bubba Gump’s restaurant at the top of the observation tower. It felt like home, and there was even a Sedgwick county license plate right beside our booth! We took a walk on a loop around the top of the mountain, walking through lush jungle and enjoying views of the city and harbor.
This morning we said goodbye to our friends Hope and Taotao. We will miss them! Then we boarded a plane and flew to Hong Kong. When we settled into our hotel room, we discovered something very exciting…soft beds! Hooray! We walked down to the shoreline in search of a tasty meal, because we were so hungry for some Western food! We successfully ate way too much salad and pizza while enjoying the beautiful views of ocean, city, and mountains all at once.
Today was the second day of the workshop in Quanzhou. The workshop was held at a brand new school for children with autism, and the building was dedicated this morning. Lin Ping, the mother who started this school, has previously been operating her school in an apartment, and now she has a big, beautiful campus. As honored guests for the dedication ceremony, we were given beautiful purple corsages to wear. The ceremony consisted of groups of teachers performing choreographed dances for us, sometimes involving pompons. We think we would have a difficult time convincing our teachers back home to do this for us!
We love Quanzhou! It is a beautiful tropical city with palm trees, green vegetation, and beautiful flowers everywhere. This is very different from Beijing. Pam and Gary have traveled to many cities across China, and this is one of their favorite! Today was a rainy/misty day, and this is very common here. The frequent rain helps to wash the city and makes it feel much cleaner than Beijing. It is also much warmer than it was in Beijing. We could get used to this!
This morning Pam was a dedicated student and got up at 5am to Skype with her class back home. After that, Scott picked us up at the hotel and drove us to the airport. As an added bonus, we got to stop by Scott’s apartment on the way to the airport and meet his mother. When we stopped to pick up Hope and her son Taotao, Hope showed us around her apartment and shared stories about her family’s history. We saw a photo of her grandmother’s feet which were made small by breaking and binding them, a practice that was common for young girls in her generation in order to make them fit for marriage. It is always sad to say goodbye to our dear friends from Stars and Rain. Tian Jian Bejing!
On Monday morning, we loaded up in the van and Scott drove us across Beijing so we could check into the hotel near Stars and Rain. We had a little while to get settled into our rooms and then Ping, Wayne, and Holly (Stars and Rain teachers) met us at the hotel. They took us on a 1.5 hour subway ride (back to near where we had started in the morning). Holly took us to one of her favorite restaurants. She is a Beijing native, so she ordered some of the best traditional Beijing food at a fast food restaurant. We tried Chinese "hamburgers", which resembled more of a roast beef sandwich than a hamburger. Molly and Pam enjoyed some pumpkin soup that had a sweet oatmeal flavor. The one food that we have yet to appreciate is the Chinese dessert. It always looks super yummy, but you usually bite into a mouthful of bean curd or minced meat. Yikes!
Today was the second day of the International Autism Conference. In the morning, we learned about evidence based practices and Pam spoke about Functional Behavioral Assessments. Afternoon sessions were focused on special education laws in the US and China. Overall, the conference was a great success. A nice range of topics was presented and well received. After feeling like celebrities and having our photos taken with seemingly every person at the conference, we managed to escape and go to dinner with most of the speakers from the conference and some international guests. We enjoyed visiting and making connections with people from around the world.
Saturday was the first day of the International Autism Conference at Peking University in Beijing. The conference was attended by about 250 parents and teachers of children with autism. In the morning, several speakers presented about social services in the country (or the lack thereof) and the implications for people with autism and their families. One exciting thing we learned from a Chinese researcher was that the first communication app in Chinese will be released next week. In the afternoon, speakers from Japan, Taiwan, and the US (Molly) spoke about community based services in their countries. We learned that there are many good things happening in these countries and hope that they serve as inspiration for China. Molly learned that presenting through an interpreter is not easy, especially when the interpreter does not know many of the technical terms you are using!
Most of us didn't sleep well last night. Our hotel was working on the power, and at 1am. the lights in our hotel room came on. When turning off the lights, most of us couldn't go back to sleep. It doesn't help that we are sleeping on a mattress that causes pressure wounds. We've been told firm mattresses are helpful for you backs, but this is the kind of mattress that makes your brain rattle in your skull when you take a seat on it. Molly taught us how to use the extra pillows to position on your hips and shoulder bones to prevent skin breakdown and provide better comfort. Alright, no more complaining as we're in China and there is so much to do and see.
We all got a good night's sleep and we were ready for an adventure on day 2. The three of us were on our own again for the day. The staff at Stars and Rain were busy preparing for the upcoming conference. It was nice to have a day to acclimate to the time change and go at our own pace. We spent the day at Summer Palace. Don't let the name fool you, it certainly did not feel like summer when we got there. Molly and Pam layered up with three shirts, two pairs of pants, and two jackets. Hats and gloves were on hand when needed. Fortunately by noon, the sun came out and we were able to shed a couple of layers. We had a wonderful guide that shared the history of Summer Palace. We were happy to stretch our legs for a long walk. We were less thrilled about the thousand stair steps that we had climb. Everything that is worth seeing in China is apparently on top of a giant hill or mountain. In this case, a man made hill that took 100,000 people to make in a span of 15 years. All for the love of the emperor's mother. How sweet!
Our last day in Zhangjiajie was hot and busy. After an exhausting day of walking and waiting in lines (some of which were literally thousands of people long), we arrived at the airport for a late evening flight back to Beijing. As fortune would have it our flight was delayed, and we did not arrive in Beijing until after 1:30 in the morning. We had reservations at a hotel near the airport and were expecting the hotel staff to meet us as we emerged from getting our luggage. Alas, there was no one there to greet us. A telephone call to the hotel finally found a staff member who spoke English, and she told us where we could find the shuttle bus. It wasn’t quite there, but nearby, and fortunately we had the name of the hotel in Chinese characters so we knew we had the right one when we found it. It was almost 3:00 AM when we got to our rooms.
The last couple of days in China are the first days with have had off in a couple of weeks, and we are being treated to visits in and around Zhangjiajie. The day started with a trip to the Zhangjiajie National Forest and another cable ride to the top of the mountain though of much shorter duration. We had not been in the park more than five minutes when the first request for a picture was made. So in the interest of international goodwill we will take our place once again in a framed picture in another Chinese home. The morning was spent on top of the mountain, and afternoon we took a 7.4-kilometer walk along the river at the base of mountain peaks. It was very serene and peaceful much of the way with perhaps the exception of the large and loud tour groups and the occasional wild monkey.
We started our day with a ½ hour cable ride from Zhangjiajie to Tianmen Mountain. The cableway is the longest one-way recycling passenger cableway in the world and has a length of 7,455 meters and a height of 1,279 meters. At the base of the cableway in the city, it is very hot and mucky, but at the top of the mountain it was breezy and refreshingly cool. The mountain has many sheer cliffs, and the walkway was constructed along the side of the cliffs much of the way. The pathway is not for the faint of heart or those with a fear of heights, but beautiful and dramatic views in every direction. Zhangjiajie is a popular tourist attraction for the Chinese but seldom visited by foreigners. We only saw three foreigners all day long, and it was not unusual for us to be asked for pictures along side of the other visitors. For more information you can Google Tianmen Mountain. You will find some YouTube videos as well. Tianmen Cave is a natural hole in the mountain, and you have to climb 999 steps to get to it. The younger three made it to the top and back while I waited at the bottom for their return.
We met in the lobby at 9:00 AM for check out from the hotel and no real understanding of how we would travel to Zhangjiajie. Our escort put Megan and me in a taxi with some luggage and a 20 yuan note. We had no idea where we were going but figured that 20 yuan (about $3.00 USD) would not get us far. The taxi driver dropped us off on a busy street with the luggage, and we waited there for Danica, Peggy, and our escort with trust that we were left there for a reason and that they would appear. Sure enough, and to our relief, we only had to wait five to ten minutes when they arrived. Then down a narrow side street to catch a regularly scheduled bus for the 5-½ hour ride. At least it was a more relaxing ride than the night before though the bus driver did like to make full use of the road even on narrow two lane roads with oncoming traffic. The double lines in the center of the road apparently have a different meaning in China.
In the morning of our last day in Changsha we traveled two hours to the Zhuzhou Tongxinyuan Autism Training Center. There we toured the school and answered many questions from the staff and the parents. We also met with parents of a separate program that provides parent support and advocacy. They have been successful in getting the public schools to accept children with autism. This is still a rarity in China as children with disabilities are not allowed in public schools if they cannot perform at the same levels as other children.
Saturday night by the river in Changsha is a busy time as there is a weekly fireworks display. Our hosts worked hard to find a restaurant on the river that was not already fully booked. We had a delightful dinner over looking the river and enjoyed a magnificent display of fireworks. It was very hot, mucky, and crowded by the river and finding a taxi back to the hotel was a challenge. The first taxi graciously went to the Heartspring team, and Hope and our hosts followed later.
Several local programs that are members of the Stars and Rain Heart Alliance sponsored the two-day conference. Stars and Rain always encourage programs to work together when they coordinate regional conferences. This promotes collaboration and avoids using the conference to promote one program over another. The directors of the program took turns moderating the conference and hosting us for meals. The conference was attended by more than 140 teachers and parents, and some even sat in the aisles to be closer to the front. Front seats were always at a premium. Some came from other provinces, and others drove as much as six hours round trip each day. There was nothing fancy about the conference room, but it was functional and much less expensive than a hotel conference room. There were more questions than could possibly be answered, and we received positive feedback from the teachers and the parents. Several parents who felt that their child was “hopeless” had chosen not to attend the conference, but were encouraged to come the second day by their friends.
We arrived late yesterday afternoon in Changsha, a 2-½ hour flight south of Beijing. Not quite as hot as back home but very humid. We had a brief stop at our new hotel, which turned out to be one of the best in the city. One of the families does business with the hotel and was able to get a great price for our rooms. Dinner in a beautiful private home though the power was out, and the meal was moved outside and ended by candlelight with neighbors, program directors, and parents of children with autism. The next door family is from Indonesia, and they are very interested in creating a relationship between Heartspring and programs in their home country.
Today is our third and final day at Stars and Rain. This morning we got to observe an activity that we helped the teachers prepare for yesterday. It was exciting to see the changes being implemented. One of the activities was a game where the children sit in a circle and pass the ball to each other. During this activity, visual supports were used to help the children understand the game. There was one particular father who was working through some challenging behaviors with his daughter, and you could just see the progress unfold before our eyes. He was able to implement the strategies he had been learning from the teachers here, and by the end of the game, the girl was sitting and participating, and you could see the pride on his face.
Our last day at Stars and Rain and it was a busy one. In addition to the training in the group home and the observations in the classrooms, a Chinese online news agency and a TV production crew were at Stars and Rain to interview staff, parents, and Heartspring staff. The website for the online news is www.56.com. It is all in Chinese, so good luck. Scott was missing as he was at his graduation ceremonies for his Master’s Degree.
The day starts for the children and parents with a gathering in the courtyard/playground for 15 minutes of dance, exercise, and social interaction. Danica and Megan spent much of the day observing in the classrooms and then provided eagerly awaited feedback to each of the teachers. They are always eager for more knowledge and feedback so that they can be better at what they do. Peggy spent the most of the day over in the group home working with the staff, who are developing training modules for TEACCH. My time was spent with Scott in our “Beijing office” as we planned for this year’s delegation visit to Heartspring in the fall.
Today is our second day of observations at Stars and Rain. It is always a great feeling when we arrive as we are greeted by lots of smiles and hellos from the many parents that are attending the current training class. This morning we were able to observe discrete trial training in action during our first observation. The teacher at Stars and Rain was working with a student on teaching the concept of quantity. After modeling the parent was given an opportunity to practice with the child while receiving feedback from the teacher. These teachers at Stars and Rain really have a good system that appears to be very helpful for the parents.
Tuesday morning Scott and I had an online discussion with Liliana Mayo Ortega, Ph.D., founder and General Director of Centro Ann Sullivan del Peru (CASP) in Lima, Peru, created in 1979. CASP is a nonprofit educational organization created to serve the community of people with different abilities (such as autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy or developmental delay) and their families. Dr. Mayo received her doctorate degree from KU and continues to return to teach and collaborate on various research projects. CASP has relationships with programs throughout Central and South America. http://en.annsullivanperu.org
Last night we were graciously invited to join Hope in her home for dinner. This is a special treat as this rarely happens usually we are hosted for dinner at a restaurant. We had a great meal of salad, potato salad, egg and tomato dish, sweet and sour pork, and a “delicious” fruit assortment. Hope even let us watch her prepare the hot dishes. It was very neat to see.
After the trip to The Great Wall, we checked into a different hotel nearer to the Stars and Rain facility called the Asia Pacific Garden Hotel. Just enough time for a quick shower and change of clothes, and then off to dinner with a board member of Stars and Rain and his wife. The restaurant is in the Sanlitun area of Beijing, which is about an hour away. Nothing seems close in Beijing, as it is a city of more than 20 million people and more cars than even the expanded transportation infrastructure can support. Thoughts of an early bedtime were deferred by a delightful after dinner walk through the streets of the area that included upscale shopping and the “Times Square” of Beijing. As we stood in the square, we felt a few drops of rain, and the heavens opened up to a 30-minute deluge that left for a soggy walk back to the car. Not to waste a few minutes with nowhere to go, Starbucks was right there, so what could we do? And right across the open courtyard and a curtain of rain was the Beijing Apple Store, which is reportedly the highest grossing Apple store in the world. The Sanlitun area is a favorite of expats, and it is a rapidly growing trendy area for young people. There were even more out on the streets as this is the Dragon Boat Festival and a holiday weekend. Click here for ten things you probably didn’t know about the Dragon Boat Festival.
We made it through the first conference after three days of presentations. It's Saturday and time off to visit The Great Wall at Mutianyu, approximately two hours from our hotel. This portion of The Great Wall was originally built during the Nothern Qi Dynasty (550-577) and later restored in the early Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). In recent years, this section of the wall has gained in popularity, particularly among the residents of Beijing. The once ever present bicycle is becoming a thing of the past as more and more people are able to purchase a car, which, in turn, allows them greater access to local and regional attractions.
Today was the last day of the three-day conference. I think the conference went very well. The information appeared to be new for most and a review for some. It is hard when you have such a diverse group and you really have little information about their background or experience.
We just wrapped up three days of training for the International Conference. The conference was very well organized and the trainees were quite eager to hear our message. It is incredible how hungry they are for accurate information. Hope was a trooper with interpreting. She had to be exhausted but her passion drives her through to the end.
Scott, Hope and Pei Pei have been spoiling us rotten. Danica and Megan have yet to be fully immersed into the Chinese culture. Every meal, Scott, Hope or Pei Pei have been with us to help us order. Gary is getting quite good at choosing the food items we like, as well. Thank goodness for picture menus! On our last trip, I thought Coke was a treat, but for this trip, I have found that Coke is readily available, you just have to ask! On Friday for lunch, Pei Pei treated us to Subway. It smelled like Subway and it tasted like Subway, yummy!
Last night, Hope's son Tao Tao joined us for dinner. One can truly see that Tao Tao is happy. As we ate dinner a couple of jet-lagged thoughts entered my mind. (1) It was a reminder that autism characteristics are the same around the world (2) Tao Tao radiates a happiness with his life and I wondered how may other children with autism in China have the opportunity to truly experience life and happiness, and (3) There is an innocence about children with autism that draws me in and feeds my passion to continue to advocate for their happiness and independence. It is truly an honor and blessing to have this opportunity to share and serve.
Heartspring staff have presented an introduction to autism, ABA, communication, and visual supports so far. There are always questions when time permits and even more during the breaks. A translator is not always available outside of the scheduled sessions, and this makes it difficult. The attendees are so eager for more information and knowledge that they do not let their limited English and our total absence of Mandarin keep them from trying.
Beijing Normal University is to the right. On the left are many residential apartment buildings, and in the distance is a view to the west away from the main area of the city. The haze has been fairly constant since we arrived. Beijing has many wonders, but the air quality is not among them.
These are from the Stars and Rain website www.autismchina.org. Every conference needs an opening ceremony and a group picture. There are about 150 people in the picture. It took about 10 minutes to organize everyone on the steps in front of the hotel and take the pictures. They are very well organized. The above link will take you to the Chinese language portion of their website. I anticipate that the comments regarding the conference will be included on the English side of their website in the near future. In the interim, Google translate can be rather amusing. My new title from Google is the "Spring Executive Director of the American Mind."
Danica, Megan, Peggy and I departed from Wichita on Sunday morning at 7:11 a.m. on the first leg of our journey to Beijing. We expected to depart from Chicago at 12:06 p.m. for a direct flight to Beijing. Unfortunately, the flight was delayed and did not leave until 3:30 p.m. 13 1/2 hours later, we arrived in Beijing at about 6:00 p.m. on Monday (5:00 a.m. back home). Always reliable, Scott was at the airport to pick us up and take us to our hotel on the campus of Beijing Normal University. We had 20 minutes for a quick shower, and were then off to dinner with Scott and Peipei.
Hanging out in Shanghai was fun. Nanjing Road was a shopaholic’s Mecca and a moving mosh pit. There are so many stores of all kinds and types and at least a million people shopping and walking in the street. We walked up and down one street multiple times and managed to step foot in or purchase something in every store or maybe almost every store. Shopping in the stalls was an adventure we happened upon and so much fun that we even went back for more the next day. What is the stall you ask yourself? Stalls are hidden rooms behind the wall of the store (closet-size, four American-sized people can comfortably fit into) where they sell all the knock-off brands. You only get into these by knowing the “special code” or nonchalantly inquiring about name brand products (Rolex, Coach, Gucci, Chanel, Longenes and the list goes on). The best food we ate in Shanghai was at Mi Terra, a Mexican restaurant, with chips and salsa, tacos and fajitas. Best meal of the entire trip hands down! We felt like we were in America again. Luckily the trip home was uneventful expect for the last minute gate change at O’Hare in which we booked it from terminal C to F with plenty of time to spare.
The day started with a western/Chinese breakfast with coffee, always a treat when we can get it. After a short trip to the facility, we had a meeting with the key staff. The team was eager to learn more about Heartspring programs, staffing, and interventions. The program is currently in the process of transition from a primarily adult inpatient psychiatric facility to a program for children with autism and behavioral disorders. Their autism program is only two months old and has a limited number of participants in the residential program. The current facility and program is still very much of a traditional medical model with many nurses in uniforms and hats. The first-year plan is to learn how to work with children with autism and then to move into a larger facility.
The morning was spent at Liu Mei’s school. Pam held a question and answer session for a large group of the teachers. At the same time, Peggy was with another group consulting on the classroom layout, and Kara was showing others how to load and use Board Maker. Some time during the morning they picked up our luggage from the hotel in preparation for our departure to Zuzhou in the afternoon. What wonderful service. After the required group picture with the teachers and staff, we headed to a restaurant with a “western style” buffet lunch, well, kind of a western style lunch. We ended up eating more Chinese food than Western.
Today started with a two-hour drive to Qufu, the hometown of Confucius, who lived 500 BC. The city itself has a 5,000-year history. Confucius was born to a poor farming family but had achieved great fame by the age of 30 for his wisdom and teachings. We toured the grounds where he lived and taught. Some of the trees in the area ranged in age from several hundred years to more than 1,800 years. Numerous additions were made over the centuries by various emperors in order to honor Confucius or to increase their own power. The Confucius family tree spans some 80 generations and has an estimated two million descendants living today. We visited the site of Confucius’ tomb located in a nearby large cemetery restricted to descendants of Confucius approved for internment. The cemetery is natural forest and brush and is quite beautiful and peaceful. Unfortunately, there was significant destruction on the grounds and in the cemetery during the Cultural Revolution. Much has since been restored when possible.
Our hosts in Jinan surprised us this morning with breakfast in a different hotel; a western breakfast with COFFEE, eggs, bread, and dessert; we couldn’t help but to include that too. Okay, coffee might not be a big deal, but it can be when it is not available for over two weeks. It was a real treat! But be careful when you ask for eggs “over easy.” That means only cooked on one side. People here are so thoughtful, gracious, and gentle. In that spirit, I won’t say anything about the bathroom door handle. You can ask Kara about that. That is all I will say about that.
We had a busy, exhausting day. We left Changchung for a day trip to a new city, Jinglin. On the way we stopped at a lake in the mountains (similar to Colorado). I believe the name of the lake can be translated to Clear Moon Sea. We walked for about two hours around the lake. We enjoyed the trees, butterflies, flowers, and all the surrounding nature. It was just what we needed to decompress. We also visited a small zoo and saw Asian bears, tigers, and believe it or not, dogs. They had a mastiff, a golden retriever, and a couple of collies. It was the weirdest exhibit I have ever seen. We ate lunch at the lake and afterwards traveled to Jinglin. It is about two to three hours from Changchung.
Today has been a very busy but exciting day. After uniting three school directors from the Harbin/Wuchang area yesterday we were able to tour all of the schools and meet the parents and teachers at these schools. Today we toured Star Baby in Harbin. This school was started in 2008 and school serves 86 students from the ages of two to eight years old. There are 39 teachers in the program. During the school day the parents will accompany their children throughout their day and participate in the learning experience. Peggy and Scott observed a large communication group in which the students were learning and expanding their language skills. Gary observed an art class in which the students were making an art project that they later gave to us. They were cutting out outlines of their hands and gluing them onto a tree. Pam and I observed a play group. The students played follow the leader (teacher), sang several song with actions and used a large parachute to throw balls into the air. After our tour and observation of the school we had a question and answer session. The parents and teachers asked several questions regarding how to help their children learn new skills, how to integrate principles of ABA and structured teaching together and how to reduce self-stimulatory behaviors. They were so eager to learn from us and we could have spent several hours there.
Pam has been designated the official representative to the blog, mainly because she is doing such a great job. She feels a little bad that she might not expressing our points of view as well. We agree with her most of the time with the exception of her comment about something being a "man thing." We left the hotel around 7:00 in the morning and headed to Stars and Rain in order to change cars and to pick up two new volunteers from Germany. They had only arrived the day before, and it appeared that they did not get much of an orientation before leaving Germany. The ladies had fun giving them some tips on survival techniques in China now that they have survived six days, quite well, I might add.
First evening in Harbin in the far northeast part of China. Harbin has a population of nearly 10 million and is known as the Ice City because of the bitter cold winters (Harbin is north of North Korea). The hospitality was warm and friendly as we were treated to a boat ride on the river and a walk through the downtown area, which was alive with people on a late Sunday evening. We met with two ladies who are are both mothers of a child with autism, and they each founded their own school to help others within their community. We saw one of their schools after our flight landed. We were greeted by about 35 children, their parents, 19 teachers, and a few government officials. The children sang and danced for us, and then gave us presents that they had made. There followed a question and answer period, and then the ever present group pictures.
Today was filled with presentations to an audience of approximately 100 attendees that included parents of children with autism, the staff of Stars and Rain, 10 teachers from around the country who are attending an eight week training program, and some other teachers and invited guests. Kara started off with the basics of autism, Pam introduced the audience to an overview of ABA, and Peggy talked about structured teaching. Many of the parents had questions; too many for the time available to answer all of them. The participants found the information very helpful, and with each change of a slide, many took digital pictures for later translation.
Peggy has been working with the staff in the small residential program. This is the only group home in the country for individuals with autism, and it is meant to be a model for others to eventually follow. Staff are eager to learn and have kept her busy.
Scott took delivery on a new 11 passenger van so Stars and Rain staff can get to and from work in a more timely manner and visitors can be better accommodated. The funds to purchase the car were donated by the actor that played the autistic son in "Oceans Heaven". He received an award for his portrayal of a boy with autism and is now quite famous throughout China. The movie was loosely based on the life of Hope and her son and has significantly raised awareness about autism throughout the country.
New teacher training group starts today. The training is two months long and will have 10 participants from around the country. Eight of the participants are from programs that are members of the Alliance, and one is from Changchun. The director of the Changchun program was a member of the delegation that visited Heartspring in June. Training is free for Alliance member programs and supported by the Goldman Sachs Foundation that Scott and I met with last year. Stars and Rain provides training to approximately 100 teachers each year, and they have now trained 300 teachers from around the country.
We made it! The flight was long for some and short for others (me). I slept the entire flight thanks to Tylenol PM. I was like a baby....wake me up to feed, then back to bed. I feel amazing. Of course the rest of the crew is dragging tail and I probably won't sleep for the next three days. It took us over an hour to get a taxi from the airport and it was raining cats and dogs in Beijing. Although it was around 7:30pm when we got to the hotel, it was dark as night. That was a strange feeling since we aren't used to the sun setting till around 9pm.